Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Medias Presentation of Common Stereotypes - 739 Words

In 2010 ABC aired an episode of the show What would you do?, in which they put gender and race stereotypes to the test. During the episode three different actors appeared doing the same thing, stealing a bicycle, the only factor that changes was the gender and race. In the first run, the one trying to steal the bike was a young white male. As he tries to break the lock many people pass by him, but did nothing. Some asked questions others just stared. An interviewed woman told the crew that at first she thought the man stealing the bike, but in the end she realized that young white men don’t go around carrying stealing equipment. In the other case, the actor was an African-american. They both had about the same age and were using the same type of clothes. This time the people reacted in a completely different way. They approach the young man trying to steal the bike; they questioned him, they even called the police. The third case put a young white girl in this position. People did stop and stare, but not to try and stop the robbery but to help her, even when she admitted that she was stealing it. An interviewee said that when you see a woman like that you assume she lost her key and she needs help. Each and every one of the people that were presented with this situation reacted according to stereotypes regarding gender and race. Ott and Mack (2013, 196) define stereotypes as a representation of a specific social group that focuses on characteristics that are misleading andShow MoreRelatedSexism in The Work Place Essay1286 Words   |  6 PagesSexism or discrimination based on gender has been a social issue for many years; it is the ideology that one sex is superior or inferior to the other. Sexism does not only affect females, but also males. Men are very often victimized by social stereotypes and norms based on gender expectations. Sexism has appears in almost all social institutions including family, the media, religion, sports, the military, politics , and the government. However, although both genders are affected, men have benefitedRead MoreFeminism And The Feminist Movement1304 Words   |  6 Pagessocietal standards. Author Susan J. Douglas believes The Bachelor to be a reality television show that perpetuates patriarchal values through the institution of marriage. The women selected in the shows are young, slim, and primarily blond. The stereotypes in this show insinuate female dependency on men for happiness and success. This perpetuates an ideology from the 1950’s, in which women were judged on their appearance and personality traits rather than their intelligence, integrity, talents andRead MoreIslam and Western Media1930 Words   |  8 PagesKomail Haider Due Date: 11-14-2009 and Presentation on 11-21-2009 Hafiz M. K. Siddiqui Introduction to Islam Islam amp; Muslims in Western Media In July 12, 2008 publication of the New York Times, it was reported that the President of Sri Lanka was killed in a suicide attack. The religion of the suicide bomber was never reported. The very same newspaper (on November 5, 2009), reported that how a Muslim attacker attacked the US Base and killed US army soldiers. This discrimination againstRead MoreThe Media s Influence On Black Children Essay1151 Words   |  5 PagesThe media has conditioned society into thinking that racial stereotypes are the norm. â€Å"Irish people are drunks† and â€Å"Asians are good at math† are all classic examples of common racial stereotypes. Author Michael Omi of â€Å"In Living Color: Race and American Culture† asserts how media presentation of minorities establishes people perspectives of â€Å"these groups†. But where do these racial stereotypes at the media fingertips originate from? It comes from the establishment of America oppressing othersRead MoreMedia s Effec t On Black Children Essay1201 Words   |  5 PagesMedia has conditioned society into thinking racial stereotypes are the norm. â€Å"Irish people are drunks† and â€Å"Asians are good at math† are all classic examples of common racial stereotypes. Author Michael Omi of â€Å"In Living Color: Race and American Culture† asserts how media presentation of minorities establishes peoples perspectives of â€Å"these groups†. However, where do racial stereotypes media portray originate from? It comes from the establishment of America oppressing others. Minorities haveRead MoreMatching Men : Tinder And The Presentation Of Masculinity1363 Words   |  6 Pageshand while at college has been interesting. One article that we read for class really resonated with my own life. The article â€Å"Matching Men: Tinder and the Presentation of Masculinity,† by Amanda Fehlbaum, related to me directly as I have an account on Tinder. In her article, Fehlbaum discusses what she personally found as the most common parallels in guys’ tinder accounts. Many of the things she covered, such as selfies, involvement of the outdoors in their pictures, and mentioning successfulRead MoreThe Representation Of Mental Illness1426 Words   |  6 Pagesshift these presentations (Uwujaren). The representation of mental ill health in film, exploits mental illness especially when it is a negative depiction. This can have detrimental effects to real individuals who suffer from mental illnesses (Uwujaren). Horror films in particular spew a certain tone and mood; many times the villain suffers from mental illness, when this occurs audiences immediately associate mental ill health with these characters (Goodwin204). Stigmatization and stereotypes are conjuredRead MoreMental Disorders And The United States1370 Words   |  6 Pagesmental disorders and don’t bother trying to correct mistakes made by themselves or others. Depression is no exception. Although it is one of the most common mental disorders categorized in the United States, how is it still such an issue? Although it is so common many people do not recognize the signs in others due to media portrayal, gender stereotypes, and the many misconceptions about this serious mental disorder. People s moods never stay the same, they change depending on your life s currentRead MoreMedia Representation Of Gender And Gender3046 Words   |  13 Pagesbe discussed critically from the viewpoints of different sociologists; for example stereotypes of femininity and masculinity and their social construction. The politics of representation, marginalisation, under representation, subordination of women and limiting women’s perceptions as well as how the news, television and adverts were responsible for the annihilation of women symbolically will be discussed. Media’s representation of women reflects the values and dominant male attitudes in societyRead MoreThe Media s Choice Of A Desert2122 Words   |  9 Pagesmessage was interpreted at the Reproduction stage. The dominant audience does not just get the message of the film, but they also get to connect to the ideology behind the production of the film. And as it reinforces, the stereotype of Africa, it also helps s harpen those stereotypes. The African people, particularly Nigerians, rejected the message after interpreting the message .In a letter written to Sony Pictures Entertainment by the Nigeria embassy in D.C, the embassy demanded the withdrawal of the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gender in International Relations - 2673 Words

Does A Gendered Approach Give Us A Significantly Different Understanding Of International Relations? By the late 1980s, academic scholars in the field of International Relations began to investigate how gender affected International Relations theory and practice. Gender is significant in International Relations because they are ‘essential to understanding the world ‘we’ live in’ (Young, 2004:75). One must emphasise on the term, ‘we’ (Young, 2004:75) as allusions of a world where men and women live in unison and that they shape the world we live in today together. But in the modern world, international politics is perceived to be ‘a man’s world’ (Tickner, 1992:6). This implication questions the realm of international politics; does the†¦show more content†¦Such an idea suggested by Regan suggests that females have a different understanding of international affairs. Therefore, this paper will argue that a gendered approach does give us a different understanding of International Relations. However, this essay will inve stigate the degree of significance of understanding International Relations as this can show the effect of a gendered approach in the field of International Relations. The Outline of Feminist Approaches The Feminist approach to International Relations is not a study of a singular theory. Feminism in International Relations is made up of many paradigms which allow them to understand why females are seen to be the inferior gender in global politics. Distinctions between feminist theories, helps us understand the issues of gender-bias within International Relations. There are liberal, Marxists, post-modern, post-liberal, constructivists, post-structural and post-colonial feminists whom ultimately unveil how they would like to restructure the field of International Relations and the world we live in. Henceforth, are women’s domestic, sex and support roles relevant to IR? Enloe (2002) claims that by ignoring a woman’s position in theories, it would essentially leave International Relations ‘with a political analysis that is incomplete and even naà ¯ve’ (2002:2). Liberal feminists, such as Hilary Clinton, believe that equality between a man and womanShow MoreRelatedGender theory in International Relations Essay2492 Words   |  10 PagesIR This essay aims to to analyse the role that gender plays in International Relations through the analysis which feminist theories have developed in the field of war and terrorism. More specifically, after a presentation of this relatively new theoretical position and its main contributions in the domain of world politics, there will be examined armed conflict with a particular focus on how gender issues affect the attitude toward international conflict, and how the dichotomy between feminineRead MoreWhat Contributions Have Feminist And Gender Approaches Made For The Development Of International Relations Theory?2017 Words   |  9 PagesContributions Have Feminist/Gender Approaches Made to the Development of International Relations Theory? Feminist theory has brought awareness of women’s voices, previously unheard in the International Relations (IR) discipline, and has refocused the lens to a more gender-focused view, which has exposed cultural biases within IR. In this essay, I will argue that feminist theory is necessary to understanding women’s points of view and alleviating their plight within International Relations. Firstly, I willRead More International Organizations1664 Words   |  7 PagesAccording to Pease (2012), an international organization are conceived as formal institutions whose members are states and these are divided into two sub-groups called intergovernmental organizations (IGO) and non-governmental organizations (NGO). An IGO consists of states that voluntarily join, contribute financially, and assist in the decision making process. All of their members’ resolves, structures, and administrative protocols are clearly outlined in the treaty or charter. An example ofRead Mor eAbnormal Factors Of Foreign Relations856 Words   |  4 PagesAbnormal Factors in Foreign Relations. Scholars usually mention about government or economics insteads of gender and race in their studies about foreign relations. Gender and race are stated as atypical factors in this field. Laura McEnaney and Michael Krenn seek the historical evidence to prove their thesis that gender and race are vital in forming foreign relation in the United States. Because gender, race and foreign relation seem not related to each other, choosing the example plays a vitalRead MoreIntercultural Communication At The National Alliance Party ( Tna ) Essay1653 Words   |  7 PagesCOURSE CODE: COM 1500 INSTRUCTOR: NGINDA R. DATE: 6TH JUNE 2016 ASSIGNMENT: IMPORTANCE OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN YOUR LINE OF STUDY. INTRODUCTION My name is Amanda Wainaina, and I am currently pursuing a bachelor’s degree in International Relations. The main area of focus l have decided to undertake is Development Studies whilst also taking a minor in Management. Furthermore, I am currently interning at The National Alliance Party (TNA). Inasmuch as I am very excited about graduatingRead MoreThe Key Dimensions Of Gender Equality920 Words   |  4 PagesThe key influences/dimensions of gender equality in the workplace comparing UK and Greece Introduction The aim of this essay is to critically analyze the key influences/ dimensions of gender equality in the workplace comparing U.K and Greece. There are many dimensions of gender equality in the workplace that have been researched and studied carefully over the years. This study will critically examine and highlight the importance of the key dimensions of gender equality in the workplace in these twoRead MoreThe International Development Program At The University Of Ottawa Under The Supervision Of Dr. Rebecca Tiessen888 Words   |  4 Pagespursuing doctoral studies in the International Development program at the University of Ottawa under the supervision of Dr. Rebecca Tiessen. I have completed the coursework portion of the program in addition to one of the two required comprehensive examinations. I anticipate beginning the field research outlined below in the Fall Semester of 2016. The main topic I will address in my research pertains to the perceived and real changes in gender roles and relations in the post-conflict context. I amRead MorePolitics And Its Effect On Society1474 Words   |  6 Pagesdirectly affect the public domain. Further more, it has no distinction as to who or what gender has to lead. In world politics today, things are a bit different and quite clear on the different role of women and men in relation to their participation and involvement. Gender equality has gained a central place on the global political agenda and it is now widely assumed a positive ideal (Squires, 2007). Furthermore, gender equality is seen as central to the awareness of modernization and economic efficiencyRead MoreInternational Relations During The Cold War1750 Words   |  7 PagesEssay over International Relations This paper will talk about how international relations changed after the cold war in four parts. The first part will be talking about environment. The second part will be talking about religion. The third part is sovereignty. The fourth part will have changes in statehood. The fifth part will talk about gender and then the conclusion. Environment has been growing as an academic subject for the past three decades and now it is on the â€Å"international agenda† (Jackson)Read MoreFeminism, Gender, And Gender Studies767 Words   |  4 Pagesdefinition of gender. Meaning no matter if you are female or male, gender will be known as a definition for both and there will be no separation. Men and masculinities also called men studies, which was a critique to the rising men’s rights movement. It is a sub study of gender studies which gave the definition to masculinities by R.W. Connell.*** A lot of people believe feminism is what put gender in the mainstream. Years in the past we always saw men as leaders to led international relations but as

Air Quality and Climate Change as Integrated Policy †1 Free Essays

Environmental policies largely influence the way humans interact with the environment. Policies targeting air quality, namely the Clean Air Act, have been effective in lowering the emissions of pollutants; however climate change is still something that concerns some scientists, citizens, and policymakers. As such, the need for further progress is necessary. We will write a custom essay sample on Air Quality and Climate Change as Integrated Policy – 1 or any similar topic only for you Order Now In order to make such progress policymakers may need to develop air quality and climate change policies through an integrative approach. Doing this, however, does not come without political, social, and scientific obstacles. Although there are obstacles to recognizing integrative approaches for policymaking, air quality and climate change may be addressed simultaneously, less costly, and more effectively by using such an approach. Air quality and climate change are interrelated and, as such, policies should be developed through an integrative approach. The federal government’s approach to climate change policy has included only voluntary measures thus far. This conservative approach has failed to address climate change effectively (Dale, 2011). Policy making is both time- and cost-extensive. Therefore addressing air quality and climate change separately prolongs the policymaking process and increases the costs associated with that process. As greenhouse gas emissions affect air quality and climate change, an integrative approach to developing policies may result in timelier, less cost extensive policies that better address both issues. Air quality and climate change are interrelated, thus policies that address both issues simultaneously may provide better health, economic, and environmental benefits. Air quality and climate change are influenced by common air pollutants. As such, focusing on one pollutant to improve air quality may increase or decrease other pollutants that affect climate change (Thambiran Diab, 2011). The complex interaction between air quality and climate change makes it nearly impossible to create a win-win situation. If a policy addresses air quality, but the impacts of the policy on climate change is overlooked, the desired benefits may vanish. Air quality management emission standards are designed to decrease anthropogenic sources of air pollutants, and it is expected that the emission decreases will lead to better air quality. Such policies are aimed at improving air quality, assuming that climate will remain constant. But scientists suggest future climate change is likely to impact meteorological factors that affect air quality, thus making it necessary to consider air quality and climate change to avoid unexpected outcomes (Thambiran Diab, 2011). An integrative approach to air quality and climate change policy making may generate better health, economic, and environmental benefits. The benefits of an integrative approach to air quality and climate change may seem obvious, but realizing such an approach does not come without political, social, and scientific obstacles. Politicians hold differing views about how to manage air quality and climate change. Not all politicians believe that climate change is an issue, despite scientific evidence, but most agree that air quality is an issue. Socially, citizens are divided much like politicians, but often rely on the media for information about the reality of climate change. To further complicate the issue, scientists are in disagreement about the validity of climate change. In every layer of society, agendas and motivations heavily influence the support or opposition to a given piece of legislation. The many political, social, and scientific obstacles come as a result of such a controversial issue, which makes it difficult to develop an integrative approach to air quality and climate change. Maintaining a fragmented approach to air quality and to climate change causes problems for everyone. As with any successful system, all parts must function properly and simultaneously in order to achieve maximum performance. Fragmented is defined as existing or functioning as though broken into separate parts; disorganized; disunified (IAC Companies, 2012). Maintaining a fragmented approach to air quality has delivered successes, but a united effort is necessary to ensure everyone is equally protected from air pollutants. Climate change, however, cannot be maintained with a fragmented approach. Global uniformity is imperative to mitigate climate change, and if cannot be addressed globally, it cannot be managed at all. Attempts locally will not provide adequate results, thus anything less than a global effort creates a problem. Because air quality and climate change are interconnected, maintaining a fragmented approach to either issue creates problems for everyone. Policies that target individual behaviors can be effective in addressing climate change and air quality. Incentives provided by local, state, and government actors are good examples of how policies influencing individual behavior can help mitigate climate change. Individuals are beginning to voluntarily change behaviors that contribute to poor air quality and climate change. These changes are making a difference, so it is rational to believe that policies targeting individual behaviors will effectively address air quality and climate change. Air quality and climate change policies should be developed through an integrative approach. The benefits of this approach include saving money and providing timelier, more effective results. Political, social, and scientific obstacles must be dealt with to realize an integrative approach to managing air quality and climate change. Fragmented approaches to air quality and climate change pose problems for everyone. Voluntary measures being taken by individuals are yielding positive results. It is therefore rational to develop policies that target individual behaviors. Although there are obstacles to recognizing integrative approaches for policymaking, air quality and climate change may be addressed simultaneously, less costly, and more effectively by using such an approach. Reference Dale, L. (2011). Environmental Policy. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. IAC Companies. (2012). Retrieved from Dictionary. com, LLC: http://dictionary. reference. com/ Thambiran, T. , Diab, R. D. (2011). The case for integrated air quality and climate change policies. Elsevier Environmental Science Policy, 1008-1017. How to cite Air Quality and Climate Change as Integrated Policy – 1, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Social, Political and Economic Conditions of the 1950s

Table of Contents Introduction Social Aspect Political Economic Discussion Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The conclusion of the Second World War brought many changes to the world. In the United States, President Truman spearhead programs that would rehabilitate the society through economic policies that would help the citizens in the United States recover from the war. The trauma experienced by the Americans was unimaginable for their fear of bombs and war devices grew at the same time the government was also on constant alert by ideologies that differ from the Western version of democracy.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social, Political and Economic Conditions of the 1950s specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The United States continued to support wars of other democratic nations against communists thus domestic policies suffered for budgets were mostly allocated to national security and funding of wars. The growing racism of the 1950s contributed to the birth of civil rights groups where white youths protest to equalize the system. As the United States government aggressively supports foreign wars against communism, a chunk of the federal budget is allocated to national defense and security programs. Domestic programs suffer thus the American population suffer for the number of poor people increased during the 1950s to 1960s. America’s intervention in the Vietnam War cost constrains where a civil war almost broke out. The citizens grew weary and angry of the government’s decisions and actions to aid the French in controlling communist Vietnam. People suspected that the United States government’s ulterior motive in financially supporting the French in the war is because the former wanted to colonize the country. American families lost allot of their family members in the Vietnam War. This paper aims to evaluate and analyze the social, political and economic cond itions of the 1950s in the United States. It aims to provide an explanation by discussing factors that lead to the social upheaval of the 1960s. Chosen events after the World War II will be the subject of the study in order to fully understand the development of the American society in the 1960s. Social Aspect After the Second World War, Americans experienced a tremendous personal fear which was a result of bombs during the war (Henriksen). Government social programs resulted in large –scale suburban housing resulted in the more suburban than urban American in the 1960s. The fairly new suburban architecture after the war necessitated new social relations with the emphasis on immediate family more than extended family. The American suburban life exaggerated the traditional male and female roles and relations. In the suburban identity there is a lack of traditional ethnic and religious diversity which are found in city life. In the 1950s femininity required conformity, passivit y and deference especially in the suburbs. Suburbs were once described by Betty Friedan in The Feminine Mystique as comfortable concentration camps (Friedan). Suburban is ideally characterized in the form of domesticity, cooperation, conformity and family. Unfortunately in the 1950s, the new suburban life Americans enjoy is excludes African Americans. Racism grew more prominent. The United States was significantly richer and more conservative than any other time in history where the middle class grew but the population of the poor did not decrease.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The hypocrisy of inequality between the whites and colored in the United States drew many white youth into civil rights movements. The massive spread of racism even resulted in many states forbidding interracial marriages at the same time most communities have restrictive housing covenants. Interstate Commerce Commission even ordered the desegregation of trains, buses, waiting rooms while the Supreme Court ordered the desegregation of restaurants in 1958. Racism became a major issue in the 1950s. Racism and the US government’s constant participation in foreign wars gave rise to civil rights groups and protesters. Of all the social protest movements of the 1960’s, student movements would have the most affect on middle class Americans. Political In terms of political aspects, President Truman justified the use of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to save both American and Japanese lives for the use of such destructive device seized the war. In the 1950s racism became intrinsic in the US government and throughout its agencies. The Truman Doctrine was produced after the war where the US pronounced its intentions to stop the spread of communism. The doctrine allowed the US to give monetary aid and military support to the Greek right during its civil war in 1946 – 49. Limited wars were also created which circumvent Congress and traditional Pentagon procurement system. When the Cold War came money from social programs were diverted to national defense. In the 1950s the United States begun testing nuclear weapons in the Pacific namely in Bikini Atoll and on the mainland in Utah. The new nuclear world and anti-communist rhetoric which developed in the United States created national anxiety. In 1956, Eisenhower was reelected as president. He filled the cabinet with business leaders who determined the domestic policy of the United States. The president’s conservative fiscal policy as well as his dynamic conservatism resulted in the increase of the average family income of Americans. During the Cold War the Americans help in funding the war expenses of the French in the Vietnam War. 80% of the expenditure was paid by the American government as of 1954 (Addington). Vietnam was divided into two parts namely the North which is controlled by the communists and the south which is controlled by the democratic French and Americans. The United States was on the verge of civil war in 1968 because of the government’s intervention on the Vietnam War. The people were angry because about 14,650 Americans had been killed in 1968 alone – almost one-half of the 30,610 who had died since 1961 (Addington). Many Americans criticized the government for spending money on Asia when the said money could be spent at home developing new jobs and infrastructure as the poverty level in the United States had increased.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social, Political and Economic Conditions of the 1950s specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economic After the war FHA loans were provided to individuals and VA loans for war veterans. Social programs such as the Social Security subsidized housing program called â€Å"Levittowns† were offset by the Fed because of the insecurity the people felt towards bombs. The FHA did not lend to African Americans despite the ruling of the Supreme Court. The blacks suffered because of the restrictive covenants where it resulted to higher costs of loans, poorer housing and worse schools for the ethnic group (Wolfe). Many Americans were forced into the cities to find work as federal subsidies to business and agriculture exacerbated problems for small farmers and business people. During the 1950s, about 1.5 million people left Appalachia for cities. The poor educational system left Americans with few opportunities for apprenticeships which meant there were fewer skilled workers available. In 1953 to 1959, about 1.5 million blue collar jobs were lost. 11% of which were lost forever. Between 1956 and 1959, 30,000 meat packing jobs were lost. Discussion In the 1950s the suburban life was very prominent in the American society where the ideal life of every American was to live in the suburbs. The man was the bre ed winner of the family thus he was the decision maker. On the other hand femininity was best described as being passive. Women were expected to be submissive to their husbands and they were considered the homemaker. They did not need to work for the man would be the sole provider. The American government had provided loans for the white families unfortunately there was racial discrimination thus African Americans did not enjoy such benefits. The rise of racism also gave rise to civil rights movements formed and led by white American youths who contradicted the way of life. These movements would later become prominent in the American society in the 1960s where mostly students would lead such groups. Political leaders after the war were characterized by their alertness to new ideologies that may oppose the democratic way of thinking in the world. After the war the US government’s priority was to rebuild the American economy. The federal government had devised programs which wo uld recover the American economy through loans that would help in the construction of homes to citizens and war veterans and serve as capitals to start up businesses.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More America’s fear of communism led to the government’s down fall in the 1960s when the government allocated most of its budget to national security and defense. The Vietnam War is an example of the government’s expensive aid to the French allies in winning the war. This expenditure angered the American public and almost cost a civil war to occur. In terms of the American economy, the 1950s showed the height of America as a rich nation where the middle class grew but ironically the poor population remained the same. During this time the American government aided citizens in building their homes and businesses to stabilize the US economy. White collared jobs were created but unfortunately blue collared ones decreased thus explaining the constant population of the poor in the United States. African Americans were not given the same benefits as their white counterparts. They were the ones who suffered the most for they had poor housing, bad education and their standard of livings have worsened during the 1950s. Conclusion The United State’s social upheaval in the 1960s was caused by racism in the 1950s where only the white population benefited from the government’s social programs. This led to civil rights groups which lobbied for the equal treatment of citizens. The same group gave rise to the popular student hippies in the 1960s that almost cost civil war because of the US government’s support in the Vietnam War. In terms of the political sector, the US government’s constant intervention with other foreign nations’ concerns with regards to wars against communism led to the anger of US citizens in the 1960s because budgets were allocated to national security and defense as well as financial supports in wars. Such move greatly affected the US economy. Works Cited Addington, Larry. America’s War in Vietnam: A Short Narrative History, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2000. Print. Friedan, Bet ty. The Feminine Mystique, New York, United States of America: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1963. Print. Henriksen, Margot. Dr. Stragelove’s America: Society and Culture in the Atomic Age, Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1997. Print. Wolfe, Tom. The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, New York, United States of America: Random House Inc., 1968. Print. This essay on Social, Political and Economic Conditions of the 1950s was written and submitted by user S1lverclaw to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Coal in a Nutshell

Coal in a Nutshell Coal is an enormously valuable fossil fuel that has been used for hundreds of years in industry. It is made up of organic components; specifically, plant matter that has been buried in an anoxic, or non-oxygenated, environment and compressed over millions of years.   Fossil, Mineral or Rock? Because it is organic, coal defies the normal standards of classification for rocks, minerals, and fossils:   A fossil is any evidence of life that has been preserved in rock. The plant remains that make up coal have been pressure cooked for millions of years. Therefore, it is not accurate to say that they have been preserved.  Minerals are inorganic, naturally-occurring solids. While coal is a naturally-occurring solid, it is composed of organic plant material.Rocks are, of course, made up of minerals.   Talk to a geologist, though, and theyll tell you that coal is an organic sedimentary rock. Even though it doesnt technically meet the criteria, it looks like a rock, feels like a rock and is found between sheets of (sedimentary) rock. So in this case, it is a rock.   Geology isnt like chemistry or physics with their steadfast and consistent rules. It is an Earth science; and like the Earth, geology is full of exceptions to the rule.   State legislators struggle with this topic as well: Utah and West Virginia list coal as their  official state rock  while Kentucky named coal its  state mineral  in 1998.   Coal: the Organic Rock Coal differs from every other kind of rock in that it is made of organic carbon: the actual remains, not just mineralized fossils, of dead plants. Today, the vast majority of dead plant matter is consumed by fire and decay, returning its carbon to the atmosphere as the gas carbon dioxide. In other words, it is oxidized. The carbon in coal, however, was preserved from oxidation and remains in a chemically reduced form, available for oxidation. Coal geologists study their subject the same way that other geologists study other rocks. But instead of talking about the minerals that make up the rock (because there are none, just bits of organic matter), coal geologists refer to the components of coal as  macerals. There are three groups of macerals:  inertinite, liptinite, and vitrinite. To oversimplify a complex subject, inertinite is generally derived from plant tissues, liptinite from pollen and resins, and vitrinite from humus or broken-down plant matter. Where Coal Formed The old saying in geology is that the present is the key to the past. Today, we can find plant matter being preserved in anoxic places: peat bogs like those of Ireland or wetlands like the Everglades of Florida. And sure enough, fossil leaves and wood are found in some coal beds. Therefore, geologists have long assumed that coal is a form of peat  created by the heat and pressure of deep burial. The geologic process of turning peat into coal is called coalification. Coal beds are much, much larger than peat bogs, some of them tens of meters in thickness, and they occur all over the world. This says that the ancient world must have had enormous and long-lived anoxic wetlands when the coal was being made.   Geologic History of Coal While coal has been reported in rocks as old as Proterozoic (possibly 2 billion years) and as young as Pliocene (2 million years old), the great majority of the worlds coal was laid down during the Carboniferous Period, a 60-million-year stretch (359-299 m.y.a.) when sea level was high and forests of tall ferns and cycads grew in gigantic tropical swamps. The key to preserving the forests dead matter was burying it. We can tell what happened from the rocks that enclose the coal beds: there are limestones and shales on top, laid down in shallow seas, and sandstones beneath laid down by river deltas. Obviously, the coal swamps were flooded by advances of the sea. This allowed shale and limestone to be deposited on top of them. The fossils in the shale and limestone change from shallow-water organisms to deep-water species, then back to shallow forms. Then sandstones appear as river deltas advance into the shallow seas and another coal bed is laid down on top. This cycle of rock types is called a cyclothem. Hundreds of cyclothems occur in the rock sequence of the Carboniferous. Only one cause can do that - a long series of ice ages raising and lowering the sea level. And sure enough, in the region that was at the south pole during that time, the rock record shows abundant evidence of glaciers. That set of circumstances has never recurred, and the coals of the Carboniferous (and the following Permian Period) are the undisputed champions of their type. It has been argued that about 300 million years ago, some fungus species evolved the ability to digest wood, and that was the end of the great age of coal, although younger coal beds do exist. A genome study in Science gave that theory more support in 2012. If the wood was immune to rot before 300 million years ago, then perhaps anoxic conditions were not always necessary. Grades of Coal Coal comes in three main types or grades. First, the swampy peat is squeezed and heated to form a brown, soft coal called lignite. In the process, the material releases hydrocarbons, which migrate away and eventually become petroleum. With more heat and pressure lignite releases more hydrocarbons and becomes the higher-grade bituminous coal. Bituminous coal is black, hard and usually dull to glossy in appearance. Still greater heat and pressure yields anthracite, the highest grade of coal. In the process, the coal releases methane or natural gas. Anthracite, a shiny, hard black stone, is nearly pure carbon and burns with great heat and little smoke.   If coal is subjected to still more heat and pressure, it becomes a metamorphic rock as the macerals finally crystallize into a true mineral, graphite. This slippery mineral still burns, but it is much more useful as a lubricant, an ingredient in pencils and other roles. Still more valuable is the fate of deeply buried carbon, which at conditions found in the mantle is transformed into a new crystalline form: diamond. However, coal probably oxidizes long before it can get into the mantle, so only Superman could perform that trick.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Frequently Asked Questions About Sexual Assault and Abuse

Frequently Asked Questions About Sexual Assault and Abuse Protecting your child from sexual assault or helping your child if they have been sexually abused can be traumatic and confusing. Many people share the same questions and concerns. Here are comments, frequently asked question, and feedback about the topic of child abuse and sexual assault. 11 Common Frequently Asked Questions About Sexual Assault I am afraid of scaring my children by talking to them about sexual abuse, but I am also afraid not to talk to them about it. What should I do? Answer: There are many things that we teach our children to be careful about or about how to react to different scary situations. For example, how to cross the street (looking both ways) and what to do in the case of a fire (drop and roll). Add the topic of sexual abuse to the other safety tips that you give to your children and remember, the subject is often more frightening to parents than to their children. I do not know how to tell if someone is a sex offender. Its not like they wear a sign around their neck. Is there any sure way to identify them? Answer:  There is no way to tell who is a sex offender, with the exception of offenders listed on sex offender registries online. Even then, the chances that would recognize the offenders in a public place is questionable. That is why it is important to trust your instincts, keep an open dialog with your children, stay aware of your surroundings and the people involved with your children, and follow general safety guidelines. People may falsely accuse someone of being a sex offender or of being sexually abused.  How do you know for sure what or who to believe? Answer:  According to research, the crime of sexual assault is no more falsely reported than other crimes. In fact, victims of sexual assault, especially children, will often hide that they have been victimized because of self-blame, guilt, shame or fear. If someone (an adult or child) tells you that they have been sexually abused or identifies the person that sexually abused them, it is best to believe them and offer your full support. Avoid interrogating them and allow them  to decide the details that they are comfortable sharing with you. Help guide them to the proper channels for finding help. How does a parent possibly handle knowing that their child was sexually assaulted? I am fearful that I would fall apart. Answer: A common fear with children who have been victimized, is how their parents will react when they find out what has happened. Children want to make their parents happy, not upset them. They may feel ashamed and fear that it will somehow alter how a parent feels about them or relates to them. That is why it is paramount that if you know or suspect that your child has been sexually assaulted that you remain in control, make them feel safe, nurture them and show them your love. You must be strong and remember that the trauma that your child has endured is the issue. Redirecting the focus away from them to you, by displaying out of control emotions, is not be helpful. Find a support team and counseling to help you deal with your emotions so that you can remain strong for your child. How can children ever recover from such an experience? Answer:  Children are resilient. It has been shown that children who can talk about their experience with someone that they trust, often heals more quickly than those that keep it inside or who are not believed. Offering full parental support and providing the child with professional care can help the child and family to heal. Is it true that some children willingly participate in sexual activities and are partly to blame for what happened? Answer: Children cannot legally consent to sexual activity, even if they say that it was consensual. It is important to remember that  sexual abusers use deviant ways to gain control over their victims. They are highly manipulative, and it is common for them to make victims feel that they are to blame for the assault. If the child feels that they somehow caused the sexual assault, they will be less likely to tell their parents about it. When dealing with a child that has been sexually assaulted, it is important to reassure them that nothing that was done to them by an adult was their fault, no matter what the abuser did or said to make them feel otherwise. There is so much about sex offenders on the news. How can parents avoid being overprotective with their children? Answer: It is important that children learn how to react to the possible dangers that they may be confronted with in life. By being overprotective or exhibiting irrational fear, children tend to become helpless. It is more productive to teach children common sense, provide them with the information that can help them, and keep an open and inviting dialog going so that they feel safe to talk about their problems. I am fearful that I will not know that my child has been a victim. How can a parent tell? Answer:   Unfortunately, some children never tell that they have been victims of sexual abuse. However, the more informed parents are about what to look for, the better the odds are that they will recognize that something has happened to their child. Learn to keep close tabs on your instincts and look for any change in your childs behavior that is concerning. Do not dismiss thoughts that something might be wrong.   Is the court process terribly traumatic for child victims? Are they forced to relive the abuse? Answer:  Ã‚  Children who go through the court process often feel that they had regained the control that was lost when they were sexually assaulted. The court process can become part of the healing process. In many states, there are professionally trained personnel and child-friendly places designed to help child victims through the interview process. If my child is a victim of sexual abuse, does talking to them about it afterward make it worse? Answer:  Ã‚  A child should not feel that they are being forced to talk about being sexually assaulted. Be careful that you are opening the door for them to talk, but not forcing them through the door. Most children will open up when they are ready. It will help them to get to that point by knowing that when that time comes, you will be there for them. What should I do if I suspect someone is sexually abusing my child or child in the neighborhood? Answer:  Ã‚  It is best to contact the authorities and let them investigate. If you suspect the abuse because of something your child or another child told you, your primary role is to believe the child and give them your support.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Combining and using source material Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Combining and using source material - Essay Example e Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2003), and Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2004) define research as a learning of an object in order to get new data. Howard and Sharp (1983), in his â€Å"Doing Your Research Project†, and Wisker (2008), in his â€Å"The Postgraduate Research Handbook†, have a similar view but add that there must be methodological processes which can gain benefit for research. These fairly general definitions are further expanded by Nunan (1994), â€Å"Research Methods in Language Learning†, who argues that research must include three elements or components such as 1. a question, problem or hypothesis, 2. data, 3. analysis and interpretation of data. For Wisker what is key is that research has an effect on the world, which is in research results, and finds the realization in our behavior in society. Dawson(2002), however, gives a less general definition and focusses specifically on the purposeful examining of the cond uct of other people with the aim of better understanding them or adding new information to knowledge. For the purposes of this essay, the word â€Å"research† will be used to mean specific studying of an object with a particular aim and special